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What is Acute Myocardial Infarction?

What is Acute Myocardial Infarction

An acute myocardial infarction is another medical name for a heart attack. As we all know, that heart attack is a deadly condition that arises due to the blood flow. The heart muscle is directly cut off and causes tissue damage. 

A heart attack is generally the outcome of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. A blockage can occur due to the growth of plaque, a substance made of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste products.

Don’t forget to call 911 immediately if you or anyone having a heart attack.

Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

However, the typical symptoms of a heart attack are chest pain and shortness of breath, the symptoms can be diverse. The most ordinary symptoms of a heart attack comprise:-

  • pain in the chest, back, jaw, and other areas of the upper body that lasts more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back
  • pressure and tightness in the chest
  • sweating
  • shortness of breath
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • anxiety
  • cough
  • dizziness
  • fast heart rate

However, it is important to record that not every people who have heart attack experience the similar symptoms or the same gravity of symptoms. Chest pain is the most common symptom among both men and women. However, women are more likely than men to have experience:-

  • shortness of breath
  • jaw pain
  • upper back pain
  • light-headedness
  • nausea
  • vomiting

However, some women also reported that their symptoms are felt like the flu symptoms.

Causes of Acute Myocardial Infarction

The heart is the chief organ in the cardiovascular system, which also comprises various blood vessels. 

Arteries are one of the most important vessels in the organ. They clutch the oxygen-rich blood to the body and other organs. The coronary arteries take oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. 

When these arteries become blocked due to the growth of plaque, the blood flow to the heart can be decreased notably or sometimes stop completely. This can cause a heart attack, and several other elements lead to a blockage in the coronary arteries.

Bad Cholesterol

Bad cholesterol is also known as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is one of the main reasons for blockages in the arteries.

They are faded substances present in the food you eat and also created by the body naturally. 

However, not every cholesterol is bad, but LDL cholesterol can damage the walls of the arteries and create plaque, which is capable of blocking the blood flow in the arteries. 

Saturated fats

Saturated fats also give their part to the growth of plaque in the coronary arteries. They are mostly available on meat and dairy products, comprising beef, butter, and cheese. 

Trans Fat

Trans fat is another type of fat that participate in obstructing arteries. They are artificially fabricated and can be present in various canned foods.

Who is at risk for Acute Myocardial Infarction?

Various types of elements can magnify the risk of experiencing a heart attack.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure increases the chances of a heart attack. According to your age, the normal blood pressure is under 120/80 mm Hg.

High Cholesterol Levels

The high cholesterol level in the blood is another element that increases the chances of acute myocardial infarction. You can balance your high cholesterol levels by opting healthy diet and lifestyle.

High Triglyceride Levels

High triglyceride is another type of fat that blocks up the arteries. They are another element that magnifies the risk of experiencing a heart attack. 

Diabetes and High Blood Sugar levels

Diabetes is the source of blood sugar, glucose, levels rise. The high blood sugar level can be harmful to blood vessels and lead the way to coronary artery disease.

Obesity

The possibility of experiencing a heart attack is more if you’re very overweight. Obesity is related to a varied condition that magnifies the danger of a heart attack, comprising:-

  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol levels
  • high triglyceride levels

Smoking

The product of tobacco like smoke can amplify the danger of a heart attack. It can also lead to other cardiovascular conditions.

Age

The possibilities of experiencing heart attack escalate with age. After the age of 45, men are at high danger for heart attack, and for women, this becomes the age of 55.

Family History

The family history of early heart disease increases the danger of heart attack for you too. The risk is maximum if you have a male member who has experienced heart disease before age 55 and if a female member who has experienced it before age 65.

Other elements which can amplify the risk of heart attack comprise:-

  • stress
  • minimum exercise
  • use of illegal drugs (cocaine & amphetamines)
  • history of preeclampsia, or high blood pressure during pregnancy

How is Acute Myocardial Infarction Diagnosed?

The diagnoses can be done by monitoring the irregularities of the heartbeat, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (EKG) test, blood tests.

Other diagnostic tests comprise:- 

  • a stress test to determine heart responses to various situations like exercise
  • an angiogram to check for blockage area in arteries
  • an echocardiogram to help out identify areas of the heart that aren’t working properly

Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction

The treatment of acute myocardial includes angioplasty, used to ease the arteries. 

Another treatment for heart attack is known as a coronary artery bypass graft in some cases. Coronary artery bypass grafts help in rerouting the veins and arteries.

Several various medications can also be useful for the treatment:-

  • Blood thinners, like aspirin
  • Thrombolytic
  • Antiplatelet drugs like clopidogrel
  • Nitro-glycerine
  • Beta-blockers
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Pain relievers

Expectation after treatment?

The possibility of recuperating from a heart attack can rely on the presence of heart damage and at the pace of getting emergency support. 

Prevention from Acute Myocardial Infarction

There are various ways of prevention of a heart attack. One way to minimize the danger is a healthy diet. This healthy diet should be consist of:-

  • whole grains
  • vegetables
  • fruits
  • protein

You can also, minimize the following from your diet for prevention:-

  • sugar
  • saturated fat
  • trans fat
  • cholesterol

Exercising every day can be also beneficial for cardiovascular health. Don’t forget to consult with a doctor before starting a new exercise if you have already experienced a heart attack.

We hope that this article is informative for you and cleared your doubts about an acute myocardial infarction. Let us know your views in the comment box!

Source : healthline.com/health/acute-myocardial-infarction

Written by Saleh wasim

Blogger who writes topics such as Employment, News, travel, sports, events and life in Gulf.

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